Dentistry is the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders and conditions of the oral cavity, especially the teeth, and to an extent related conditions in the maxillofacial (jaws and face) area. Dentistry can be considered a branch of medicine as a whole, although it is also concerned with cosmesis.
Dentistry usually encompasses very important practices related to the oral cavity. Oral diseases are major public health problems due to their high incidence and prevalence across the globe with the disadvantaged affected more than other socio-economic groups.
The majority of dental treatments are carried out to prevent or treat the two most common oral diseases which are dental caries (tooth decay) and periodontal disease (gum disease or pyorrhea). Common treatments involve the restoration of teeth, extraction or surgical removal of teeth, scaling and root planing and endodontic root canal treatment.